Gum Diseases

For Your Healthy Smile

diş eti hastalıkları

Gum Diseases

Diseases develop in the gums, which form the basis of the mouth and teeth, due to different reasons. These gum diseases, which can be seen in everyone and in every age group, lead to serious dental problems unless they are treated. Routine and correct oral care is generally an effective step in the prevention of these diseases. However, in some cases, even routine oral care is not sufficient. In such a case, it is necessary to consult a specialist dentist, and an effective and correct treatment is provided in a short time.

What is Gum Disease?

Infectious diseases that occur in the surrounding tissues that support the teeth are called gum disease. This health problem, which is seen in every age group, manifests itself in different ways. This disease can be seen even if the teeth do not have caries. If left untreated, tooth loss, loosening of the teeth, bad breath and bleeding may occur. The biggest disadvantage of this problem is that it is painless. Thus, it is diagnosed late and its treatment is often delayed.

This health problem, which is called ‘periodontology’ in the medical language, is called ‘peridontitis’ if it progresses too much. If this inflammatory disease is diagnosed in the early period, there is usually no need for surgical treatment methods. For this reason, it is very important to go to the dentist for regular check-ups at least every 6 months. In addition, it is the best approach to get expert support as soon as possible in dental problems.

What are the Causes of Gum Diseases?

Gum diseases occur as a result of the accumulation of bacterial plaque (microbial dental plaque) on the periodontal tissues around the teeth. Plaque, which is the main factor in the formation of this disease, is formed by the combination of food residues on the teeth with bacteria in the saliva. In the advanced stage, it turns into dental calculus. Plaque formation, which is a physiological process, is harmless in the first few hours and is a natural process. However, if it is not cleaned, it reaches a certain thickness and after this period it becomes a toxic substance. Thus, it causes this disease, which has the potential to pose a threat to oral health.

There are also different factors that cause gingival disorders that cause destruction in the tissues around the teeth. These:

  • Oral contraceptives, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, heart and blood pressure drugs.
  • some drug use.
  • Systemic diseases such as AIDS, leukemia and diabetes.
  • Bad eating habits.
  • Smoking.
  • Hereditary causes.
  • Changes during menopause, pregnancy, and puberty
    Although the main reason for the formation of gum diseases is dental plaque, it can also be seen for the aforementioned reasons. In addition, it is important to inform the specialist so that systemic diseases do not cause any possible complications in dental treatments.

What are the Symptoms of Gum Diseases?

Gum diseases, which are mostly manifested by bleeding in the gums, are a problem that most people experience at some point in their lives. Early diagnosis is very important in effective and short-term treatment. Therefore, a dentist should be consulted as soon as the symptoms are noticed. Its symptoms are generally as follows:

  • Gum bleeding that occurs spontaneously or while brushing teeth.
  • Incompatibilities in currently used prostheses.
  • Mismatch of upper and lower teeth during biting.
  • Teeth that move away from each other and wobble over time.
  • Inflammatory discharges seen in the teeth and gums.
  • Tooth laxity.
  • Tooth extraction.
  • Bad breath.
  • Tenderness, swelling and redness of the gums.
  • Formation of dental pockets.
  • Sensitivity to cold, hot and sweet foods.

The cause of bleeding seen in the gums is the deterioration of the veins and vascular structures that feed the tissue around the tooth due to inflammation. Because of this deterioration, the blood elements that should actually stay in the vein come out. Thus, bleeding occurs.

How to Prevent Gum Diseases?

The first step in the prevention of dental and oral diseases is to pay attention to routine care. While it is recommended to brush at least twice a day, it is necessary to make sure that all tooth surfaces are cleaned. In addition, wisdom teeth and posterior tooth surfaces are the most difficult areas to clean. Therefore, care must be exercised. In addition, it is recommended to brush the points where the gums and teeth meet with oval movements, as if massaging.

While doing the routine daily cleaning of the teeth, the food residues that the brush cannot reach and enter should be cleaned with dental floss and interface brush. In addition, brushes should be renewed for at least 2-3 months. Even if there is gingival bleeding during brushing, brushing should be continued. Because the main reason for these bleeding gums is less brushing.

One of the most effective steps in preventing gum diseases is to see the dentist regularly every 5-6 months. Especially in periods when the occurrence and progression of dental diseases is easier, the controls should be more frequent. These; conditions such as menopause, puberty, pregnancy, and diseases such as diabetes. If calculus is detected during the doctor’s controls, it is recommended to clean it as soon as possible. Otherwise, more detailed and long-lasting treatments should be done.

How Are Gum Diseases Treated?

In general, gum diseases are treated in 3 ways. These; deep dental cleaning, drug treatment and surgical approach. In the deep cleaning performed with dental applications, teeth and gums are purified from all foreign substances. In the meantime, tartar, plaque, tartar and food residues are cleaned. This dental cleaning is done on the teeth, in the visible spaces of the gums and in the cavities that reach the tooth root.

Gum diseases should be treated as soon as they are noticed, otherwise it will progress. In addition, the type of treatment is determined according to the tissue and stage of the disease. The goal of treatment is primarily to treat the infection. If the disease is advanced, detailed cleaning is not enough and requires surgical intervention. Oral care is recommended by a specialist after surgical intervention. It is important to pay attention to this care so that the disease does not recur and the treatment can be completed.

Surgical Interventions in the Treatment of Gum Diseases

For advanced gingival diseases, surgical intervention is required. Surgical interventions applied according to the stage are as follows:

  • Subgingival Curettage: This treatment method, which is applied to patients who have undergone initial treatment but no improvement in tissue, is performed under local anesthesia. The calculus in the lower part of the gingiva and inflammatory tissues is cleaned.
  • Gingivectomy and Gingivoplasty: This surgical technique, which is applied to shape the gingiva, is generally applied in case of thickening of the gingival margins. It also provides correction of fibrotic gingival growths and gingival morphology.
  • Flap Operation: Necessary bone corrections are also required in this surgical procedure, which is applied for the prevention of gum diseases and plaque control.
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration: This technique, which is the process of placing a barrier around the teeth, encourages the bones that support the teeth to grow.
  • Soft Bone Grafts: It is a surgical intervention performed to fill the areas where the gums are pulled and to strengthen the gums.
  • Bone Graft: It is the process of forming the damaged bone caused by gingival diseases, either synthetically or with the patient’s own bone.
  • Pocket Reduction Operation: This operation, in which pockets filled with tartar are cleaned, is performed by lifting the gums backwards. Tooth scaling and root planning are also performed when necessary.

The first step for healthy teeth and gums is regular care and expert control. If one or more of the symptoms are seen, it is necessary to consult a specialist immediately. Thus, the problem is solved with a short-term treatment without the need for surgical intervention.

Need Help?

Make an Appointment